На днях я решила освежить в памяти случаи инверсии в английском языке.
Как известно, английский язык отличается, в частности, от русского меньшей свободой в отношении порядка слов в предложении. Самым обычным и нормальным считается такой порядок, когда глагол следует за подлежащим. Однако, существует некоторое количество случаев инверсии, когда этот порядок нарушается и глагол выходит на переднюю позицию.
Вот что мне удалось собрать:
- Where is my bag?
- Have you seen it?
2. Sometimes after how in indirect questions (in formal writing; especially when the subject is long)
- I wondered how reliable was the information I had been given.
3. Sometimes in exclamations
- Was I mad! (AmE)
- How beautiful is this place! (old-fashioned literary style)
4. May in wishes
- May all your wishes come true!
5. There / here at the beginning of the sentence
- There is no reason for such confusion.
- Here is your change.
BUT: with pronouns → here it is; there she is!
6. Here comes / there goes + noun
- Here comes the bus.
- There goes the phone. Can you answer it?
7. In short answers and similar structures after so, neither, nor
- I’m tired. – So am I.
- I don’t believe him. – Neither /nor do I.
BUT: so + subject + auxiliary – to express surprised agreement
- It’s raining. – Why, so it is!
8. After few, such, so, little at the beginning of the sentence (unless this words modify a noun)
- So nervous was she that she couldn’t speak clearly.
- Such was their astonishment that they didn’t stop asking questions.
9. After as and than in comparisons, with a noun subject (in formal language)
- Ann decided to cancel the journey, as did John.
- She was upset about the situation, as was Mary.
- Research shows that parents watch more television than do their children.
BUT: with pronouns ↓
- His parents now watch more television than they did a couple of years ago.
10. Sometimes in reporting, with a noun subject
- ‘What did you say?’ asked Tom.
- ‘We should book the tickets’ suggested Mary.
11. Prepositional phrase indicating location at the beginning of the sentence + intransitive main verb (often verbs indicating position or motion)
- In the box were several old books.
- On the corner stood his brother.
12. Participle + be
- Standing on the corner was his brother.
- Lying in the box were several old books.
13. After the adverbs expressing direction or movement, such as away (=off), along, down, in, out, up, over, round, etc. at the beginning, when the subject is a noun.
- Down came the rain.
- Away went the visitors.
- In walked the doctor.
- Round and round flew the plane.
- Off we go!
- Away they went.
- Round and round it flew.
14. After a “negative” word or expression at the beginning of the sentence: never, hardly, seldom, rarely, barely, scarcely, not only, not until, at no time, nowhere, in no way, under no circumstances, etc.
- Never has he faced so many problems at once.
- At no time did they break the rules of the game.
- Not only did the police arrive, but the firemen came too.
- Not a single word did he say.
15. Restrictive expressions: after only + time expression / prepositional phrase
- Only once was I late to class.
- Only after he finished the project, did he go on holiday.
- Only when he apologises will I speak to him again.
- Only by chance had he found the evidences.
16. In conditional sentences without if or unless (more formal)
- Should he ask me, I would surely help him. / Were* he to ask me…
- Were I in your shoes, I would apply for this position.
- Had I known, I would have told you.
- Should you change your mind, don’t hesitate to call me.
*were is also used with I, he, she and it
17. When a passive verb is split and the main verb begins the sentence
- Held as hostages were several reporters.
- Seen leaving the building were two masked hold-up men.
18. Literary sentences, e.g. beginning with an adjective (or past participle used like an adjective), and some other cases
- Blessed are the children who are still unaware of what the future holds.
- Gone are the days when she could have been happy.
- Later came a message from his wife.
Возможно, чего-нибудь не хватает… Дополните? (: